Tuesday, November 10, 2015

The Presidents Bush: The Walker Genealogy (Part I)

George E. Walker, from Slave Trader's Son
to Jesuit-Educated Farmer

We all are aware that John Newton wrote the lyrics to the hymn "Amazing Grace" to the tune of an African slave tune he heard when he was captain of a slave-trading ship. However, few of us have heard that the first of Presidents George H. W. and George Walker Bush's ancestors on their Walker genealogical line to move to America was also a slave trader--Captain Thomas "Beau" Walker from Clifton, a suburb of Bristol in Gloucestershire, England. Captain Walker married Catherine McClellan (or McLelland) in 1785, and their first two children were born there in Bristol.

Beau, a ship captain engaged in trade from the Bristol port to the West Indies, in 1792 moved his wife and two children to America and applied for citizenship, buying land in New Jersey in 1795--a move which occurred the year following the historic slave revolt in Saint Domingue (Haiti) in 1791. America had only recently won its independence from Britain, the thirteen colonies having ratified the new Constitution in 1789.

At that time slaves were being imported at the New Jersey port at Perth Amboy and sold to Dutch farmers in the Passaic and Raritan river valleys, who "had a long history of slave ownership." Burlington, New Jersey's port at Camden saw fewer slaves being brought to the county because of the Quaker influence across the river in Pennsylvania. In 1797, however, the same year Catherine gave birth to their third child, George, Captain Walker was lost at sea while engaged in bringing slaves from the Sierra Leone coast, according to research published at Slate, which attempted to confirm that Thomas Walker and Beau Walker were, in fact, one and the same man as mentioned October 24, 1797, in Life and Letters of Zachary Macaulay:
Slave ship in British trade
You have heard of the noted Beau Walker, an English Slave-Trader of these parts. He arrived at the Isles Du Los [off present-day Guinea] lately in an American Brig being bound to Cape Mount [in present-day northwest Liberia] for slaves. He had scarce arrived at the last place, when exercising his usual barbarities on his officers & crew, they were provoked to conspire against him. As he lay on one of the hencoops a seaman came up & struck him on the breast with a handspike, but the blow being ill directed, did not produce its intended effect and Walker springing up would soon have sacrificed the mutineer to his fury, had not a boy at the helm, pulling a pistol from his breast, shot him dead on the spot. His body was immediately thrown overboard. Thus ended Walker’s career, an end worthy of such a life. The vessel left Cape Mount, and it is supposed has gone for the Brazils or South Seas. There could not possibly have been a more inhuman monster than this Walker. Many a poor seaman has been brought by him to an untimely end.
If the verification of Walker's identity is true, it sounds as though the infant George was better off for having lost his father, at least in Macaulay's estimation of the "inhuman monster" of a man called Beau Walker. Had he not died when he did, history may have been changed forever. For whatever reason, his death led the widow Catherine Walker to relocate across the river to Philadelphia.

George's mother (Beau's widow) is recorded as being married in 1801 to her second husband, Robert Hodgson, in Philadelphia, about 30 miles from Burlington, N.J., in the historic Christ Episcopal Church. The service was performed by assistant rector Dr. James Abercrombie. When Catherine died in 1806, she left behind three children: 
  • Rosetta, born in Clifton, Gloucestershire,  in 1785, was 21 when her mother died;
  • Thomas McLellan Walker, born in England in 1787, became the man of the family, sometimes known as "Uncle Tommy"; and
  • George E. Walker, born an American citizen in Burlington, N.J. in 1797, was ten years younger than his brother and twelve years younger than his sister, and a mere nine years of age when his mother died.
George's Catholic Upbringing by Scanlans

Within a year after Catherine's death in 1806, Rosetta met Dr. James Scanlan, a physician, who appears to have been in Philadelphia visiting his uncle, Dr. William Matthews, Jr., brother of the former Susannah Matthews, who had died in 1792. The Matthews family, who were also related by marriage to Kitty Knight, is mentioned in the Cecil County Historical County Bulletin No. 31, dated May 22, 1967 at page 159:
Susannah Matthews Scanlan's brother, Dr. William Matthews' estate

Scanlan was in Philadelphia, visiting his mother's brother, Dr. William Matthews (1735-1808), whose death occurred only a year after James' marriage to Rosetta Walker. Many of the papers relating to lands owned by Dr. Matthews (Bohemia Manor, Vulcan's Rest, and Worsell Manor), adjoining St. Xavier's mission in Old Bohemia, were donated to Georgetown University archives. About the mission land's history, as quoted from a book by Myndie Burgoyne, Haunted Eastern Shore: Ghostly Tales from East of the Chesapeake (Haunted America), who wrote:
Fr. Mansel sailed up the Chesapeake and up the Bohemia and obtained land between two branches of the Bohemia River.  There he founded his mission and named the tract of land St. Xavier.  On a high piece of ground, he built a chapel and log cabin. He named that St. Francis Xavier - after the most famous Jesuit missionary. In 1774 Fr. Thomas Pulton founded a Jesuit Academy on the property for educating young men. John Carroll attended the Academy around 1747, and went on to found Georgetown University.  He later became the bishop of the first established Diocese in the Colonies – Baltimore – making him the first American Catholic Bishop.

After a ceremony at St. Augustine’s Catholic Church in historic old town Philadelphia, James took his new wife and her youngest brother, George E. Walker, to Sassafras Neck, an area located between two branches of the Bohemia River, in Cecil County, Maryland.
Read Biographical & Historical Memoirs of Mississippi

Dr. Scanlan, a dedicated Catholic, saw to it that young George had a proper Catholic education by sending him in 1811 at the age of fourteen to  Mount Saint Mary's Jesuit school, in Emmitsburg, Maryland. There Rosetta gave birth to their first child, James William Scanlan in 1809, whose birth had been followed by three daughters (Mary, Catherine or Kate, and Rosetta Ann). Finally, in 1821 another son, Edward Barto Scanlan, was born only four years before Dr. James Scanlan died in in 1825.

The  widow, Rosetta Walker Scanlan, who had by then resided in Maryland for eighteen years, chose to return to Philadelphia, where her eldest son was beginning medical studies at Jefferson Medical College (now called Sidney Kimmel Medical College), in the area where Rosetta's brother Thomas Walker lived.

Yale graduate Dr. George McClellan,[1] who studied surgery at the University of Pennsylvania, had founded Jefferson in 1824 as part of a college near the western state line. Once James Scanlan's medical studies were completed, he moved to Mississippi to practice medicine, reportedly dying in Thibodaux, Louisiana in 1838. Rosetta's youngest son, Edward Barto Scanlan, also ended up in the deep south, seemingly disconnected from his uncle, George E. Walker, and the rest of the Scanlan family.

George Walker's Nieces--Mary Scanlan Stokes
and Kate Scanlan Minahan 
and Great-Niece, Agnes La Roche

Rosetta's eldest daughter, Mary Scanlan, was ardently courted in 1839 by William Axton Stokes, son of merchant Charles Stokes, whose devout Catholic family was on Philadelphia's Social Register. The original papers describing their courtship, as donated to Villanova, indicate that Mary Scanlan lived in Philadelphia with her uncle, a Mr. Walker, who could only have been Rosetta's brother, Thomas Walker.[2] One genealogist reveals research indicating Thomas was a bank clerk and living at 181 S. 9th Street in Philadelphia before he relocated to Bloomington, Illinois, reconnecting with younger brother, George E. Walker. The 9th Street location is adjacent to the medical school which Mary's brother, James W. Scanlan, attended at the same time. Other genealogy reports show that "Uncle Tommy" was buried in the David Davis plot in the Evergreen Cemetery in Bloomington in 1870.

William Stokes in 1839 was already an attorney, later becoming chief counsel for the Pennsylvania Railroad. He moved to Western Pennsylvania soon after Mary Scanlan Stokes died in childbirth in 1849, only two years after the death of her mother (Rosetta Walker Scanlan). Her widowed husband was quickly remarried to a woman named Nancy and, during the civil war, received a Major's commission.[3]

Soon after the war, Stokes resumed his position with the railroad, but in about 1870 he returned to Philadelphia. The body of his wife Mary, originally buried at the now defunct new St. Mary's cemetery, was moved at some point to Vault No. 12 at St. John's Churchyard, apparently by daughter Catherine (Kate) Scanlan. William Stokes' brother, Dr. Thomas P. J. Stokes, who had studied medicine at the University of Pennsylvania during the 1840's, died at age 41 in 1856 and was also interred in this vault. Agnes Stokes La Roche's remains also reside there since her death in 1904.

Uncle Tommy is also mentioned in a letter, part of a collection at Illinois Wesleyan University, from Catherine Scanlan Minahan to Judge David Davis' son, George Perrin Davis (who will be discussed in Part II), asking for help for her nephew Tom, son of Edward Barto Scanlan. Kate (shown in the 1850 census as a 35-year-old single woman in Greenburg, Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, keeping house for her recently widowed brother-in-law) in order to help a recent widower, Daniel F. Minahan, take care of his infant son born in 1853, married him and continued to live in Western Pennsylvania until at least 1870. Minahan was a civil engineer and railroad contractor, as well as author of several mathematical works, and was said to have "laid out the first road between Latrobe, Pa., and Chicago." Kate is referred to in a biography of his son, Thomas Boromea Minahan, as  "his stepmother, a talented Southerner," who helped him to become
proficient in classics, history, orations and poetry, subsequently attending a parochial school. He was graduated at St. John's College, Fordham, N. Y., in 1876, with the degree A.B., carrying the honors of his class, and in 1902 Fordham University gave him the degree LL.D.
René de la Roche
Mary and William's daughter, Agnes Stokes, grew up to marry in 1873 Dr. C. Percy La Roche, son of René de la Roche, who obtained a medical degree from the University of Pennsylvania in 1820, after first working as an accountant for a shipping firm and then serving in the War of 1812. Percy's father's biography states that he served thirteen years on the Board of Health of Philadelphia and that he spent twenty years as a Trustee of the University of Pennsylvania. He also boasted membership in numerous other medical societies and charitable organizations. He married in 1824 Mary Jane Ellis, daughter of Colonel (Judge) John Ellis of Natchez, Mississippi, and died in 1872. Percy's biography mentions that he had been educated at St. Mary's in Baltimore until 1852, thereafter attending Georgetown in Washington, D.C., then studied medicine at the University of Philadelphia. He did his medical residency at St. Joseph's in Philadelphia in vaccines.

Author Bertram Wyatt-Brown did not mention the fact that the La Roche family had also used the name "de la Roche, and his gave Percy's father's name as Dr. René Marc Marie LaRoche, leading to some confusion, since he was often known simply as "Dr. René de la Roche." Percy's grandfather, another René, had owned a plantation in St. Domingo (Haiti), the destruction of which in the slave revolt of 1791 prompted him to relocate to Philadelphia until his death in 1820, and to continue the practice of medicine for which he had prepared himself in France. 

The second Dr. René La Roche (or de la Roche), Agnes Stokes' father-in-law, drew close to Dr. Samuel D. Brown, founder of a secret medical fraternity in 1819 at Transylvania University in Lexington, Kentucky, which had among its aims promoting "harmony of the profession," and creating "a powerful underground force in medical politics." When Dr. Brown died in 1830, René de la Roche became his "ardent eulogist," according to a satirical paper prepared by Dr. Chauncey Depew Leake, read to the Wisconsin Medical History Seminar in 1921.

Called Kappa Lambda Society of Aesculapius, this secret fraternity established branches in numerous other cities, and Dr. De la Roche, along with Franklin Bache and other members in Philadelphia, in 1826 began publication of the North American Medical and Surgical Journal, which mentioned Dr. Brown's Kappa Lambda and its desire to inculcate a "higher standard of excellence" in the medical profession. The new Jefferson Medical school founded by George McClellan in that same year occurred within the prestigious era of Kappa Lambda Association. However, after publishing only twelve volumes of the journal, the Association was dissolved in 1836. These same forces, however, after attack and defeat in 1831, resurrected the same ideas into a new group formed in 1847 called the American Medical Association.

It should be recalled that Haiti, known in those days as Santo Domingo, or Saint Domingue by the French, was the same island to which Beau Walker smuggled slaves from Sierra Leone. Had Captain Beau Walker sold such "cargo to the De La Roche family? Only further research can say.
Click to enlarge.


[1]  Brief research did not indicate that he had any family relationship with Catherine McClellan Walker.

[2] Possibly incorrectly transcribed as "J.W." instead of T.W., Mary's uncle's conduct was considered by William A. Stokes as either tawdry, rude, or strange, and was more specifically described in the journal as follows:
On Monday 9 Sep 1839, I called on Mr Walker by consent of Mary and had a long interview. At times during the conversation he was very much excited and at other times calm. He said that the family had deceived him and treated him as a fool and a puppet that Mary & Kitty [probably Catherine Scanlan, also known as Kate] had positively denied there was any ground for suspicion, that they must have know that this declaration was false-- that we were in no [�] adapted for each other & more particularly that our [�] and feelings are at variance and that our religious views were dissimilar -- he said that I had no idea of the pertinacious bigotry of the Catholics -- that if I am thought of the matter seriously as I probably would I would be violently opposed to Mary's religion and that my profession was one in which I could not expect to make money for some years and that Mary was far from being a young girl and that it was inexpedient that at her age She should be embarrassed by any engagement. However others had [�] that I had behaved with honor &c &c. I defended the family and the whole matter to my best ability and he finally said that though he would not oppose he would not approve the matter -- that he should always be glad to see me or a friend and would me with politeness. I left him & in the afternoon communicated the whole matter to Mary.

[3] Although Stokes had in 1847 helped author a political treatise about the writ of habeas corpus with Edward Ingersoll, a man who supported the Confederacy's legal arguments and who did not agree with Chief Justice Taney's Supreme Court opinion in the case of Ex Parte Merryman, he did not totally agree with Ingersoll. A son of Charles Jared Ingersoll, in 1865, while speaking in favor of the states' right to secede, the younger Ingersoll had been beaten, arrested and jailed on a charge of carrying a concealed deadly weapon. Four years earlier, Major Stokes, in contrast, had delivered a speech at the Union Convention in Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, in September, 1861, in which he denied the right of secession, which he called a "union for disunion" at page 7. Edward Ingersoll's name, curiously enough, also appears amidst the petty bickering and medical intrigue central to the politics that surrounded the formation of Jefferson Medical College in 1826, notably regarding the dismissal of Francis S. Beattie, professor of midwifery, who subsequently sued the faculty and the trustees of the Jefferson Medical College. The Ingersolls, father and son, at various times were trustees of the college at Cannonsburg, Pennsylvania, which had sponsored the medical school.

(To Be Continued)

Tuesday, September 22, 2015

How D.H. Byrd's Uncle and Cousins Met G.H. Walker

Abraham (Abe) Ruddell Byrd (born 1851) operated Stephen  Byrd's farm in Jackson County, Mo., at least until 1878, when he began to engage in other business pursuits, particularly flour milling. He and his wife Sallie Hunter Byrd lived in Cape Girardeau in the "bootheel" of Missouri, described as follows:
gum and bald cypress
Before a series of large levees were constructed by the federal government to harness the Mississippi River, its flood waters regularly spilled across much of southeast Missouri. The Missouri Bootheel once was a natural basin to catch all of this water, a swamp unsuitable for any kind of habitation.
Abe Byrd had four sons, the two eldest of whom entered business with their father in 1904. The next eldest, Carlisle Oliver (likely named for the head of Carlisle Training School in Jackson where the older boys received their preparatory education), was almost six years younger than A.R. Jr. and the youngest, Edward Russell, was not born until 1897. By 1910 A.R. had relocated his wife and younger children to San Antonio.

Joseph Hunter Byrd, was at the University of Texas by 1900, where he was elected to the Cactus staff. The second son, A.R. Byrd, Jr., began in 1899, graduating from U.T. in 1903. The brothers then left Austin to take up ranching and mining near El Paso, Texas--on lands in both Old and New Mexico. Returning to Missouri after only a year, the brothers became serious about assisting their father in his two businesses: (1) flour milling; and (2) the sawmill or lumber road business. The mining business in which these elder sons and their younger brothers were involved in is more mysterious and will be dealt with later.

As early as 1900 Abe Byrd had owned Cape County Milling Co. along with a nephew, Ruddell Monroe McCombs, son of his sister, Elizabeth "Betty" Byrd McCombs, who died when her son was only a boy. In 1905 Cape Co. Milling was said to have "luxurious offices" located "near the [Gould-owned] St. Louis, Iron Mountain and Southern Railway station in the eastern part of Jackson," less than ten miles northwest of Cape Girardeau. After the college-educated sons went into business with him, A.R. Byrd organized the Alsop Process Co. of St. Louis, Inc. to acquire from James N. Alsop flour patents the inventor had obtained from Great Britain in 1904, and subsequently from the United States, covering machinery to bleach flour.

A.R. Jr. worked as sales agent for Alsop, but quickly became an officer within the St. Louis Alsop Process Company. While they began manufacturing the patented machines, they also sold franchises to other flour mills to use the Alsop Process. The company's first St. Louis office in 1904 was on S. 7th Street near railroad loading docks and warehouses, but by 1912, the company had moved its headquarters to the heart of St. Louis' financial district--506 Olive Street, today within the block called Metropolitan Square. Although still associated with the Alsop Process at that time, A.R. Jr. had joined his brother in their own brokerage company at 420 Olive, a block east of the Alsop office. Today the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis takes up the entire block at N. 4th and Locust, only a block to the north. Near their offices was another notable St. Louis stockbroker, G.H. Walker & Co. at 307 N. 7th Street.[1] We will hear more about him below.

Under the corporate name of American Forest Co., Abe Byrd, also owned timber in the swampy area around Cape Girardeau, employing his son J. Hunter Byrd as president. Working in 1911, Byrd met with promoters who wished to construct the "sawmill and lumber" infrastructure of the Portland & Southeastern railway from a point on Gould's St. Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern railroad in southeastern Arkansas to link with the old Vicksburg, Shreveport & Pacific, as shown in the Engineering and Contracting magazine, Vol. XXXV, No. 15 (at page 32). One court case indicated that American Forest had been incorporated in New York, and that certain financing came from the St. Louis Union Trust Co. Intriguingly, QJ revealed previously that the original builder of the Vicksburg line had been Charles G. Young, ancestor of David Atlee Phillips! [2]

Read full article.
Houck's consolidated system was owned by a syndicate of investors from southeastern Missouri, who sold the St. Louis & Gulf Railroad to the St. Louis & San Francisco Railway (the Frisco) in 1905. As one of Houck's large investors, A. R. Byrd got a tiny Missouri town named for him:
At the urging of Abe R. Byrd, who owned a sizable tract of land south of Senath, Missouri, and in part with Byrd's financial backing, Louis incorporated the Kennett and Osceola Railroad to extend south from Kennett toward Osceola, Arkansas, running roughly parallel to the St. Francis River in the Bootheel's most remote corner. Inside of a year, crews painstakingly carved out a line nearly fifteen miles long through Senath to a junction point with the Paragould and Eastern Railroad that Louis simply called Arbyrd.[3]
Click map to enlarge. See original at website.

American Forest Co.
Houck had therefore managed to build a series of railway lines connecting Cape Girardeau to St. Louis, as one part of a dream that envisioned a railroad which would span from St. Louis directly south to the Gulf of Mexico. Perhaps Abe convinced his eldest son to take over construction where Houck left off, partly we assume because such a project would provide a constant market for railroad ties milled by the American Forest Co.

J. Hunter Byrd, as president of the lumber mill, had become ever more involved in the securities business. Even before 1913, when, according to Louis Houck's biographer, Byrd "stepped forward to help facilitate the sale" of his father's friend's railroad interests. J. Hunter first approached the Goulds' Missouri Pacific without success.

Jay Gould of MoPac had died in 1892, leaving control of his railroad interests in the hands of an inept son, George J. Gould and his crew of advisers, including three directors and numerous executives who lived in St. Louis (E.B. Pryor, Sam F. Pryor, and Charles S. Clarke). When Pryor left St. Louis for the New York area, he rose quickly in the business world, according to Karin Crooks:
(Sam) Frazier Pryor (1865-1934), arrived in Greenwich to start a new career, uprooting his family from their life near St. Louis, Missouri. At 48, Sam Pryor was a self-made man who, after high school, had worked his way up through the railroad supply business to become president of Southern Wheel Company. Sam’s new employer, the family of William Rockefeller (1841-1922), was already established in Greenwich and famous worldwide for its wealth. In his new position as General Manager and Vice President of Remington Arms-Union Metallic Cartridges Co. (Remington), Sam would report to two bosses: William’s second son, Percy A. Rockefeller (1878-1934), the young head of the family business; and William’s son-in-law, Marcellus (Marcy) Hartley Dodge (1888-1963), the sole stockholder of Remington.
Hunter Byrd then approached the Frisco and, according to biographer, Joel P. Rhodes, he had the following results:
By deftly maneuvering himself into the Frisco camp [composed of B.F. Yoakum, B.L. Winchell and Thomas West], the young entrepreneur ultimately acted as the big railroad's proxy in the execution of a familiar contract with Louis in February 1913. Immediately after consolidating the Gape Girardeau and Thebes Bridge Terminal Railroad, the Chester, Perryville and Ste. Genevieve, and the Saline Valley Railroads into one Cape Girardeau Northern, Houck sold this entire new corporation and all his interest in it to a syndicate headed by J. H. Byrd.[4]
A. R. Byrd, Jr., Secretary
A bond issued by the Cape Giardeau Northern, shown here, contains the signature of A.R. Byrd, Jr. as the secretary. Louis Houck clearly believed that J. Hunter Byrd was acting on behalf of the Frisco Railroad at the time Byrd formed the corporation and merged Houck's lines into it. When, in 1913 the Frisco went into receivership and the receiver refused to take over maintenance of Houck's former railroads, Houck sued on behalf of the bondholders.

The Texas & Pacific at first had leased its existing lines to Jay Gould's Missouri Pacific network, but, after Gould acquired a majority of stock in the T&P in 1885, the two roads simply continued to work together as a system through Gould holdings in both companies.

However, in 1911 the Gould-owned Missouri Pacific made a high-dollar deal with B.F. Yoakum, of the St. Louis and San Francisco Railway (Frisco) Company, who then purchased for himself a huge estate in west-central Long Island, New York. Only two years later the Frisco was placed in receivership, with a young man born and reared in St. Louis emerging as a top officer in the creditors' hierarchy. George Herbert (Bert) Walker's career as a railroad man is not nearly as well known as is the career of his namesake given by his daughter to her son, George Herbert Walker Bush after her marriage to Prescott Bush in 1921. But the Walkers had begun to relocate to Long Island as early as 1919, according to Doug Wead's biography of Bert's grandson, The Raising of a President.

The Byrds Fly to Texas

In 1907 A.R. Byrd, Jr. married Elise, a daughter of Hungarian-born engineer, Otto Kochtitzky, who had formed the Little River Drainage District in Southeastern Missouri to drain the wetlands where hardwood cypress proliferated.

Southern Merchant
As a member of the Alpha Tau Omega fraternity at the University of Texas, A.R. Jr. may have had contact with its sponsors, Walter Bremond and T.W. Gregory, who were close friends of Colonel Edward M. House, the man who had elected numerous governors in Texas before turning his sights toward electing U.S. President Woodrow Wilson. Alpha Tau Omega sponsor, Thomas Watt Gregory, became Attorney General in 1914 in President Woodrow Wilson's Cabinet, which was mostly hand-picked by Col House. One man selected to work with Wilson's Attorney General in gathering intelligence information was the banker, railroad receiver, G. H. Walker of St. Louis, who was Chief of the St. Louis division of the American Protective League, which reported directly to the Department of Justice.[5] We only mention this fact in passing to show Walker's powerful political and intelligence connections to the Democratic establishment of that era.

Louis Houck "constructed a network of five hundred miles of track through the wilderness of wetlands known as 'Swampeast Missouri'." The first railroad Houck built connected Cape Girardeau to the Iron Mountain Railroad, and by 1902 many of Houck's lines had been sold to the Frisco. Access into the rail network was of great importance to the Byrds, who sought an affordable distribution medium for their processed flour.

As a consequence the value of the lands within the district, including not only Abe Byrd's timber land, but Houck's railroad land as well, increased dramatically, as did the taxes assessed on the land by the drainage district. Louis Houck's railroad sued Kochtitzky's district, contesting its taxing authority. Houck lost in the Missouri Supreme Court in 1911, forcing him to either pay his ever-rising taxes or lose his lands. In desperation Houck sought a buyer for his railroads. Houck was approached by Abe Byrd's eldest son, J. Hunter Byrd, mentioned earlier, who was a financier as well as the brother-in-law of Otto Kochtitzky's daughter, Mrs. A.R. Byrd, Jr., nee Elise Westmore Kochtitzky. (Note: It is possible Houck did not know that Kochtitsky's daughter was in fact the sister-in-law of the man who sought to rescue him from this desperate situation. They did remain married until 1925, when they divorced without children.)

It was a somewhat intricate plan. They set up a new corporation Byrd had formed, Cape Girardeau & Northern Railroad Co., of which Hunter Byrd was president. The new corporation absorbed the five existing railroads through a purchase from Louis Houck, paying for them with proceeds of bonds issued by the new company and guaranteed by the St. Louis & San Francisco (Frisco) Railroad. At least $1,200,000 of the $2,500,000 in bonds were sold to innocent purchasers in reliance upon the guarantee, and it was that fact which influenced the Court in its final decision to hold the railroad liable in the amount of $1,200,000.

However, when Houck had not received payment by February 1914, he sued the Frisco, which had guaranteed the bonds in 1913, which had almost immediately been placed in receivership by its creditors, chief among them being another St. Louis investment banker, George Herbert Walker. One lawsuit was filed in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Missouri and heard in June 1918 (253 F. 123), in which the Frisco intervened to prevent plaintiff, J. M. McElvain, from pursuing a claim against for a debt he claimed predated the appointment of receivers.

Morton & Co., Inc. - 1920
Attorneys for the Frisco included Cravath & Henderson, the firm which a few years later would employ John J. McCloy. It is interesting to note that Carl A. DeGersdorff, a future partner in the firm, was a director of a subsidiary railroad at the same time as G.H. Walker, Benjamin Yoakum and Robert J. Kleberg. Another subsidiary of the Frisco had Walker on the board with lumbermen J. H. Kirby and J. F. Keith of Beaumont. Keith's daughter Olga married Houston oil tycoon Harry C. Wiess.

As early as March 1920 Walker was named as president of Morton and Company, Inc., a Guaranty Trust investment bank subsidiary, along with Averell Harriman, Sam Pryor and Percy Rockefeller.

We will end this segment at this point. Studying the Byrd family's deep roots has helped to reveal something we never dreamed we would find. In hoping to explain how D. Harold Byrd became such a close friend of Lyndon Johnson, instead we learned how closely tied his father's family was to the grandfather of George H.W. Bush. Small world!


1. See also J. Hunter Byrd's biography in St. Louis, the Fourth City, published in 1909.

2. Young had moved to Texas and chartered the Houston and Great Northern railway before his tragic accidental death in 1871. The HGN would later continue to build north in Texas, connecting to the Shreveport line at Mineola, and in 1873 became part of the International & Great Northern Railroad, acquired by Jay Gould in 1880 for his Missouri Pacific Railroad. Gould would also acquire the Texas and Pacific and the St. Louis Southwestern (Cotton Belt) and owned "one-half of the mileage in the Southwest" by the time he died in 1892. Gould's biggest competitor in the region was the Frisco, which attempted to merge in 1922 but the purchase was refused by the ICC.

3. Joel P. Rhodes, A Missouri Railroad Pioneer: The Life of Louis Houck, p. 190University of Missouri Press: "In telling the story of his railroading enterprise, Rhodes chronicles Houck’s battle with the Jay Gould railroad empire and offers key insight into the development of America’s railway system, from the cutthroat practices of ruthless entrepreneurs to the often-comic ineptness of start-up rail lines."

4.  Joel P. Rhodes, A Missouri Railroad Pioneer: The Life of Louis Houck, p. 252.

5. Emerson Hough, The Web (Reilly & Lee Company, 1919), p. 293.]

Monday, August 31, 2015

Red Flags and False Flags

Blog readers have lives separate and apart from the blog writer, leading the readers free simply to wonder only occasionally what is taking so long for the blog to get to the point. This blogger does have a present life, which sometimes intrudes into the musings of past events being researched. Even more significant, however, is the fact that researching those past events often diverts the research into areas the blogger never quite expected it to go. Here's a brief recap:
  • After working for a couple of months on the study of the family of Ruth Hyde Paine for a presentation at the JFK Assassination Conference in Arlington last year, I started a new project tagged "Wayne January's Tale about a Tail Number." The goal was to determine what I could about whether someone was trying to help Lee H. Oswald and his friend Judyth Vary Baker escape to Cozumel, Mexico on the afternoon of November 22, 1963.
  • After publishing Part I of the research, a reader graciously mailed me a package containing the history of the airplane that Wayne January wrote about. It was my analysis of tail Number N-17888's title which led me to look into the history of NAvion Aircraft, a defense plant built at the site of the federal government old North American Aviation field. After WWII ended, the factory came under the ownership of "Texas Engineering and Manufacturing Company, known by its acronym, TEMCO, a company which by 1947 was making B-25 bombers for South American countries."
  • The years between WWII and the Korean War were years that saw contests taking place within large airplane-building corporations as well as single-engine airplane manufacturing. TEMCO was converted into a mega-conglomerate by D. Harold Byrd, working with James Ling, who created Ling-Temco-Vought on the original site of North American Aviation. This was the same company which had a subsidiary which employed the notorious Malcolm Everett (Mac) Wallace, alleged to have been the real shooter who fired from the Texas School Book Depository, effectively framing Lee Harvey Oswald as the assassin of JFK.
  • Thus, I began a new line of research, hoping to find a past link between D. Harold Byrd and Mac Wallace. The next segment, "As the Byrd Flies...," set out the research into D. H. Byrd's ancestry, which coincidentally revealed his mother's family's close ties to Vice President John Nance Garner. The next segment about "Admiral Richard Byrd, Jr." connected the true family links, much more distant than first cousins, as D. H. had often implied.
  • The next segment of our research delved into stories about another plane, a "Comanche-type aircraft" boarded by "three men in suits" just over an hour after President Kennedy had been gunned down. From what Merrit Goble, who ran the fixed-wing operation, TexAir, at Red Bird told Louis, Gaudin, the Air Traffic Control Specialist for the Federal Aviation Agency (FAA)--added to other revelations made to investigative reporter Daniel Hopsicker-- conclusions have been made that this plane was flown by Barry Seal, who flew one actual assassin from Red Bird field to Love Field that day. 
  • I was even more intrigued, however, by the fact that Lyndon Johnson's brother-in-law, Birge D. Alexander, "an engineer-executive" at FAA in Fort Worth, according to Life magazine's profile of the new president in August 1964, was promoted to Area Manager for the Southwest Region of the F.A.A., announced in July 1965 in the Amarillo Globe-Times.
I published these last three segments in April, four months ago, but I have continued to try to make sense of where I suspected the research was leading, and of how to introduce it. Intriguingly, in my mind it appeared that, rather than pointing more fingers at LBJ, the material seemed to be pointing to someone in the shadows, using President Johnson as a shield to hide his own misdeeds.

In future posts I will publish the research that leads to the conclusion that ties D. H. Byrd's uncles to a particular railroad network which was expanding into Texas in the early 1900's.

As I learned more about this railroad, one name would appear from time to time that raised a red flag to me.

This name declared:  
Here is the money; follow it. 

That name, of course, was G. H. Walker, father of Dorothy Walker. On August 6, 1921, in Kennebunkport, Maine, he became the father-in-law of Prescott Sheldon Bush. He died, however, in 1953, passing many of his banking secrets down to his son, George Herbert Walker, Jr. We will explore some of these details later.

Wednesday, August 5, 2015

Would the Real Edward Byrd Please Stand Up

Our search for D. Harold Byrd's father's history has been time consuming, if not actually enlightening. Quite possibly not even Harold himself could have provided answers about his father's past.

Edward Byrd's obituary in 1943 stated:
Midlothian, TX--HEART STROKE TAKES PIONEER ON DALLAS VISIT--Funeral Services Set for Edward Byrd, 88, Oilman's Father. Edward Byrd, 88, Midlothian, long-time resident of Texas and father of D. Harold Byrd, Dallas Oilman and Texas wing commander of the Civil Air Patrol, died of a heart attack here Thursday.

Mr. Byrd was stricken as he walked along St. Paul in front of the Federal Building shortly before noon Thursday and was dead on arrival at Parkland Hospital. A native of Missouri, Mr. Byrd was the grandson of pioneers who had pushed westward in 1799 into Missouri while it still was part of the Louisiana Territory. He was born at the Old Stone House, still standing on Byrd's Creek, Byrd Township, Cape Girardeau County, Mo.

Covered Wagon Traveler.
As a youth of 19, he came to Texas for the first time in 1873 in a covered wagon and stayed at Starkville [sic], Lamar County, two months before returning to Missouri by pony, a trip that required a month. His next trip to Texas was by rail, and he settled at Blossom, Lamar County. There in 1877 he joined the Presbyterian Church, became a ruling elder three weeks later, and since then had represented the church at various times from the assemblies of the Red River Presbytery to the General Assembly.

Owned Early Day Store.

He married, in 1879, Mollie Easley, daughter of a farmer in the community. There he built a small home, and later added a gin and mill, then several houses and finally a store. The community was named Byrd Town [Byrdtown?]. Later he moved his family to Detroit [Texas] where he engaged in the mercantile business for a time, and then in 1901 moved to Ardmore, Oklahoma where he lived until 1913, moving to Midlothian. He and his wife celebrated their golden wedding anniversary there in 1929. In Midlothian he was active in the Presbyterian Church and was chairman of its board of elders, a position he had held for nearly thirty years.

He is survived by his wife, three sons, D. Harold Byrd; R. J. Byrd, Irving; and B. E. Byrd, Midlothian; two daughters, Mrs. R. T. Gidley and Mrs. R. B. McDonald, both of Dallas; seven grandchildren and one great-grandchild.

Funeral services will be held at 10 a.m. Friday at the Midlothian Presbyterian Church, with Dr. Jasper Manton, pastor of the Trinity Presbyterian Church of Dallas, officiating. Years ago while Dr. Manton's father was pastor of a Presbyterian Church at Paris, Dr. Manton was ordained there and later became pastor of the same church. Mr. Byrd attended Dr. Manton's ordination service and many years ago requested that he conduct his funeral.

Burial will be at 4:30 p.m. in the family burial plot at Blossom. Pallbearers will be Tom H. Dees [for many years
chairman of the board of directors of Republic National Bank, Dallas], W.H. Price, J.P. Sewell, J.G. Oliver, R R. McElroy and Dr. H.G. Williams, all of Midlothian. (Source: Dallas Morning News, January 8, 1943)
D.H. Byrd suggested in his 1978 autobiography  (with research assistance from Mickey Herskowitz, among others) that his father was "likely" the same "Edward Byrd" involved in the discovery of an oil well in the Indian Territory near Chelsea. It is the attempt to either verify or refute that claim which has led this blogger into a study of Oklahoma history and the Indian Territory, despite which effort a question still remains. After revealing the results of my research, I leave it to the reader to form his or her own conclusion.

Oil Prospector Edward Byrd

One Byrd genealogist posted specific details about the Edward Byrd who found oil near Chelsea in northeast Oklahoma in a public family tree at Ancestry.com:

Clues in the above story help to establish the following facts:
  1. Edward Byrd incorporated a company in Kansas, and in 1891 he began to prospect for oil on Cochran property
  2. United States Oil Company ultimately drilled eleven wells in the area, the output of which was carried from the well through a pipeline running downhill to the Frisco side track in Chelsea. 
  3. In 1893 this drilling company was reorganized as Cherokee Oil & Gas Company (CO&G), which drilled 14 wells before passage of the Curtis Bill in 1898. 
  4. Oil production ceased at that point until treaties with the Indian nations could be put in place. CO&G first applied in June 1901 for a drilling lease covering 98,000 acres through the Department of the Interior, an action opposed by the Cherokee Nation because, according to the attorney for the Cherokees in documents filed with the court in October 1901, CO&G was "alleged to be a branch of the Standard Oil Company."
  5. "Ed. Byrd" had been the fourth mayor of Chelsea in the days prior to statehood, according to a "condensed history" of the "thriving town" set out in Chelsea Commercial newspaper in Oklahoma, possibly the same politically minded Edward Byrd who in 1906 announced as candidate for delegate to Oklahoma's Constitutional Convention. The agreement dissolving the Creek Nation became law on June 25, 1901, and tribe members were granted U.S. citizenship. Within a few years, the Indian Territory and Oklahoma Territory were combined into one state and admitted to statehood. Ed Byrd was an alternate delegate to the Statehood Convention held in 1903.
  6. 1900 and 1910 census records show an Edward Byrd, born in about 1845, living in Chelsea but conflict concerning his birthplace: 1900 census gives Indiana; 1910 census gives Missouri. 
  7. In 1910 Byrd's name appeared on the same census page with widow Elizabeth Byrd's large family, all of whom worked in an oil production company. Elizabeth's deceased husband, Lafayette Byrd, had been the brother of an Edward Byrd from Roane County, Tennessee.
The oil company founder had married a half-Cherokee Indian named Jane Nelms, who had been born born in the Indian Territory in 1855, and their two children were born in Chelsea: Henry Harrison Byrd in 1877, who died in Abilene, Texas in 1945; and Daisy Dean Byrd in 1879. Jane Byrd died intestate in 1910, and in October of that same year Edward Byrd deeded their Cherokee-allotted land to daughter Daisy Byrd Corah, the wife of 28-year-old Edward Milton Corah, who was listed in 1910 census records as a single man engaged in oil refining in Chelsea, and both he and his brother Edgar Leroy Corah had come west from Warren, Pennsylvania, where they had worked for what would become a division of the Pure Oil Company, controlled by the Dawes family, who were also heavily involved in the commission set up by President Grover Cleveland in 1888 to oversee the Indian lands previously set aside by treaties in what would become Oklahoma. Strangely enough, Edward Corah was in 1913 engaged to be married to a different woman in his hometown.

As part of the Dawes Commission we find in the Memorial of the Delaware Indians (Cherokee Nation) that hearings took place in 1903 relating to segregation of certain lands to members of the Cherokee Nation. Daisy D. Byrd, as a part-Cherokee Indian, was allotted lands she chose (see page 24). Edward Byrd claimed other lands on behalf of his wife Jane, who had asthma as was unable to testify (at page 31). Ed. Byrd (aka Edward H. Byrd) also witnessed a deed executed in 1899 by Henry H. Byrd, Jr. of lands Henry had selected as his allotted acreage (see page 46). As a notary public Edward Byrd also witnessed other deeds (pages 53, 59). Note: The Edward Byrd from Tennessee had a brother named Henry Harrison Byrd, for whom he named his son. Daisy Byrd Corah's husband incorporated a plethora of companies in the area, one of which was Bernice Oil Co. in 1913 with millionaire, John T. Milliken, who lived at 35 Portland Place in St. Louis. A chemist in control of a mouthwash company called Pasteurine, Milliken was more notable as the brother-in-law of Albert Patrick, the Texas attorney who wrote a second will for railroad financier William Marsh Rice, murdered in 1900. Milliken spent much of his fortune attempting to prove Patrick innocent of the crime.

Mrs. E.M. Corah, (Daisy?) in 1913 was present with other "society people" at the wedding of her friend Maude Greer to Harry Swarts. After their marriage the Swarts moved to Tulsa, where Harry worked as an attorney while Maude had her own tea shop/cafe. Also present were several attorneys: William Thomas Rye, who had a probate practice in Vinita, and "Uncle Jack" Kendall, gave away the bride. E.M. had connections to Vinita Refining Co., built in 1910, and his brother Edgar was also in the refining business, and would spend at least the last two decades of his life working in San Antonio, Texas. Edward and Daisy did relocated to Houston around 1920, when he was named manager and vice president of Transatlantic Refining Company's new plant built at Houston Heights Blvd. at Washington Avenue by Hugh Hamilton, a brewing and hotel magnate, who was a client of the Baker & Botts law firm.

Further documentation suggests that the Kansas prospector named Ed. Byrd, referred to in Endangered Species, lived in  Chelsea as early as May 1884, owning a Chelsea boarding house in 1889, the same year he began "boring for oil, coal or something."
Edward Byrd of Ardmore, OK

According to D.H. Byrd, his father moved from Texas to Ardmore, Oklahoma, in 1901 two years before statehood was approved. Ardmore had first opened up to white settlement when the Santa Fe Railroad began building north from Gainesville, Texas in 1885 across the Indian country, establishing towns as it went.

In his autobiography at page 6, Harold Byrd bragged that his father in Texas had established a town called "Byrd Town," south of Blossom in Lamar County, which was totally destroyed by a "raging fire." It was the fire, Byrd says, that prompted Ed to move the family to Ardmore, Oklahoma, probably in 1901. However, we have not been able to verify that a fire occurred or that Ed Byrd was founder of such a town, which was actually called Byrdtown.

It can be confirmed, however, that in Ardmore Ed did temporarily agree to operate the Crown Bottling corporation and a candy factory after the owner, Morgan J. Hays, died in 1910. (See clipping to the left.)

That year's Ardmore city directory showed Ed Byrd having a real estate office, involved with farm and  "mining" lands, located at 17-1/2 N. Washington, while he resided at 439 H Street, N.W., a less than impressive neighborhood. We know from the Ardmoreite news that Ed in 1906 had an interest in rock asphalt mines in nearby Overbrook, OK, which he used to make asphalt bricks for paving roads.

The same year Ed Byrd acquired his asphalt mines, he sent son Ruddell Jones Byrd (called "Leo," for unapparent reasons) to San Antonio's Peacock Military Academy, where he received awards along with fellow student Dolph Briscoe, Sr. , a man whose son would later become a most unassuming Governor of the State of Texas.

After graduation, Leo began working in Missouri, overseeing properties owned by an uncle, one of Ed's brothers pictured at the top of this page. While young Ed Byrd had been off in Texas and the Indian Territory, his brothers had continued their farming and other enterprises in Missouri, though both eventually followed his lead, relocating to Texas. As we saw in a previous post, A.R. Byrd took his flour milling process to San Antonio and settled for a time in the King William district of that city, while William C. Byrd moved to southwest Texas. Their  move only occurred, however, at the instigation of their sons, who had reached adulthood and took their fathers into investments in what was then believed to be the transportation technology of the future.

Saturday, July 11, 2015

Follow the Yellow Brick Road (Part I)

Years ago the author of this blog, Quixotic Joust, Linda Minor, published a long, winding treatise about her analysis of the world based upon  historical research she conducted, called "Follow the Yellow Brick Road: From Harvard to Enron." What follows is an edited excerpt.

Part I: 
  From Cutthroat Competition,
to Charity, to World Government--
The Morgan Syndicate 

By Linda Minor ©2000

Professor Carroll Quigley states that the Rhodes Trust controlled huge amounts of capital which the trustees had the obligation to invest for the purposes set out in the Rhodes Will, including "the extension of British rule throughout the world ...[and] the ultimate recovery of the United States of America as an integral part of a British Empire." Such purposes required the utmost secrecy. 

Rhodes wrote his first Will in 1877 (final one written in 1899), so we know his goal was already in the working stages by those at Oxford who motivated him at the time. The ultimate trustees were close to Oxford University, having been ingrained with the same devotion to the perpetuation of the Empire, through chartered companies like Rhodes' British South Africa Company and Hudson's Bay Company, which returned a high percentage of profit to the British Government.[See Marvin Perry, Sources of the Western Tradition: Volume II: From the Renaissance to the Present.

The trustees, who had control of Rhodes' gold and diamond mines, already had their eye on the oil that had been discovered in Pennsylvania in 1859. According to Eustace Mullins, in The Rockefeller Syndicate, the Rothschilds banks, which controlled 95% of American railroads through their agents, sent Jacob Schiff of Kuhn, Loeb & Co. to John D. Rockefeller, who had ruthlessly acquired control of 95% of American oil refineries. They worked out an elaborate rebate deal for Rockefeller, through a dummy corporation, South Improvement Company. These rebates ensured that no other oil company could survive in competition with the Rockefeller firm.

Investments were then made through secret nominees with the aim of acquiring control for the British Empire of what was then the most strategic resources throughout the world, including the old colonial empire in the Americas. Loans made to finance new business in the United States may have been conditioned on the borrower's agreement to set up a charitable foundation upon death or retirement, and the assets of the foundation would then be placed in the hands of trustees approved by the Rhodes group. Thus the trust would be administered in accordance with the goals set out by Rhodes in his will. This scheme was followed until after the end of World War I and the decade leading into the second World War. By that time Americans began to believe they could replace European investors with their own home-grown banking establishment, whose investments in the petroleum industry was superseding the need for foreign investments.

Thomas A. Scott

As it turns out, South Improvement Co. was a holding company scheme designed in 1871 by Pennsylvania Railroad magnate, Thomas A. Scott. South Improvement Company was a secret alliance between the railroads and a select group of large refiners aimed at stopping "destructive" price-cutting and restoring freight charges to a profitable level. According to the pact, the railroads would raise their rates, but would agree to pay rebates to Rockefeller and other large refiners, thus securing their steady business. In addition, the latter were to receive the proceeds of the "drawbacks" levied on nonmembers, who as a result would end up paying much higher prices for their shipments of oil. 

In April of 1872, the South Improvement Company's charter was repealed by the Pennsylvania legislature before it had even conducted a single transaction. Eager to consolidate the refining industry, Rockefeller set out to eliminate what he called "ruinous" competition from his most immediate rivals. In less than six weeks, between February and March of 1872, he used the threat of the big new alliance and a sophisticated range of tactics to buy up 22 of his 26 Cleveland competitors.

Scott was first-vice-president of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company in 1860, and served as president from 1874 until 1880. Scott's allies pushed through the Pennsylvania state legislature a series of bills creating the nation's first pure holding companies--two of which were the Pennsylvania Company and the Southern Railway Security Company. The Southern Railway Security Company held the stock of the southern feeder route for the Pennsylvania that Scott envisioned, to stretch from Washington, D.C. to the Mississippi River. The company had been purchased from James Roosevelt (FDR's father) in 1873--just seven years before Roosevelt married into the Delano family of "former" opium traders. 

Andrew Carnegie

Scott's assistant until 1865 was Andrew Carnegie, who left the Pennsylvania Railroad to start his own company, but who maintained his ties to the railroad. In 1875 Carnegie founded his first steel plant, the Edgar Thomson Works, in Braddock, Pennsylvania. The plant was named for the president of the Pennsylvania Railroad, which was his first customer; he made 2,000 steel rails for the Pennsylvania Railroad. 

In 1901 Carnegie sold his entire company to J.P. Morgan for $480 million, allowing Morgan to create US Steel. Morgan would have been acting in this transaction as an agent for investors, but we do not know whose money he used to purchase Carnegie's stock. With his proceeds from the sale Carnegie established the Carnegie Institution to provide research for American colleges and universities. 

Daniel Coit Gilman

The first president of Carnegie's new institution was Daniel Coit Gilman, trained at Norwich Academy, who had entered Yale in 1848, forming an intimate friendship with his fellow student, Andrew Dickson White. In 1852, had Gilman studied for a few months at Harvard College, living in the home of Prof. Arnold Guyot, a Swiss national educated in Berlin. Gilman and White sailed the following year to Europe as attachés of the American legation at St. Petersburg, Russia; he also spent the winter of 1855 in Germany. For the next seventeen years, his life revolved around Yale. 

According to Antony Sutton, Gilman's first task in 1856 was to incorporate Skull & Bones as a legal entity under the name of The Russell Trust. Gilman became Treasurer and William H. Russell, who had been the co-founder with Alfonso Taft (the father of president William Howard Taft) in 1832, became President. Russell received permission to form a chapter of the German secret society, while he was studying for a year in Germany.

Gilman became president of the University of California in 1872 and of Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore in 1875. As a result of the Panic of 1893, dividends were suspended on the common stock in the the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad (founded by George Brown of Baltimore), which stock composed the bulk of the university's endowment. The railroad was bought out of 1896 bankruptcy by the Pennsylvania Railroad. Gilman remained in Baltimore until the 1890s. It is interesting to note that the B&O was largely financed initially by Barings Bank, which issued 6% bonds worth 1 million pounds sterling before 1880. The B&O also sold 2 million pounds of its securities through J.S. Morgan's London office and almost that many more at a reduced price a few years later--still before 1880. Most of the B&O creditors, therefore, were British, and they demanded that the interest on the bonds be guaranteed by Barings and Morgan.

By March 1896, according to railroad financing historian, Dorothy R. Adler:
J.S. Morgan; Brown, Shipley; and Baring Brothers, Ltd. announced that they had agreed to cooperate to protect the British holders of securities issued through their houses [according to Burdett's].... On the other hand, the Economist commented on this announcement:
In many instances, however, the protection thus accorded to English holders of American railroad securities has been a very costly piece of business, and has materially added to the losses which the general proprietary bodies have had to sustain. Of course, we do not expect issuing houses to work for nothing, but there is a moral responsibility attaching to their position which should weigh with them, and induce them to use their best endeavours in the protection of the interests which they have helped to create, without reference to the fees to which their services may entitle them. And when these services are volunteered, there is all the more reason why their cost should be kept within moderate limits. [Source: Dorothy R. Adler, British Investment in American Railways: 1834-1898, p. 164.] 
A partial list of notable trustees of Andrew Carnegie's Institute, listed alphabetically, reveals the names of the most well-known men appointed. In 1910 Carnegie created another group called the Endowment for International Peace. This was a forerunner to Woodrow Wilson's vision of a League of Nations which eventually became the United Nations. The international problems to be settled were disputes over territory, claims and monetary crises presented to the businessmen who conducted trade across national boundaries. The names marked by an asterisk had participated in some way or inherited their wealth from trade in opium or the China trade:
Robert O. Anderson, 1976–1983; 
Robert S. Brookings, 1910–1929; 
Vannevar Bush, 1958–1971; 
*Frederic A. Delano, 1927–1949; 
Cleveland H. Dodge, 1903–1923; 
Simon Flexner, 1910–1914; 
*W. Cameron Forbes, 1920–1955; 
James Forrestal, 1948–1949; 
Hanna H. Gray, 1974–1978; 
*Henry L. Higginson, 1902–1919; 
Ethan A. Hitchcock, 1902–1909; 
Herbert Hoover, 1920–1949; 
*Henry Cabot Lodge, 1914–1924; 
Alfred L. Loomis, 1934–1973; 
Robert A. Lovett, 1948–1971; 
*Seth Low, 1902–1916; 
Andrew W. Mellon, 1924–1937; 
William W. Morrow, 1902–1929; 
Walter H. Page, 1971–1979; 
James Parmelee, 1917–1931; 
William Barclay Parsons, 1907–1932; 
John J. Pershing, 1930–1943; 
David Rockefeller, 1952–1956; 
Elihu Root, 1902–1937; 
Elihu Root, Jr., 1937–1967; 
William H. Taft, 1906–1915; 
William S. Thayer, 1929–1932; 
Juan T. Trippe, 1944–1981; 
Andrew Dickson White, 1902–1916.
When the stock market crashed in 1929, more than a decade after the the Federal Reserve System act was passed by Congress in 1913, the same year John Pierpont Morgan died, another group of financiers stepped in to buy up the major stockholders in the private banking system. Their actions would usher in a totally different emphasis on the direction the United States was to take in investment and in what "charities" would be rewarded in future years.